Getting started with Git
This document is a primer on using Git for an Apache Software Foundation project.
- Repository types
- Repository checkout
- Committers: getting started
- Windows users
- Line endings
- Further reading
There are two forms of Git repositories:
- Read-only mirrors hosted at
- Read/write repositories hosted at
This document is chiefly about the read/write repositories.
Public and private repositories¶
Projects can set up as many public repositories as their development work requires, using SelfServe.
Each project can also have a private repository space for working on sensitive issues such as:
- security patches
- writing a draft of the project Board report when there is a section that will appear in a
- sharing credentials
The private repository is not for uses such as project code development not related to a security issue.
See the Project Code Repository Policy for further details.
Open a Jira ticket for Infra to request a private repository.
The repository URLs are all of the form:
Cloning a repository
$ git clone https://gitbox.apache.org/repos/asf/reponame.git
$ git clone http://gitbox.apache.org/repos/asf/reponame.git
Committers: getting started¶
Set up your name and email that Git will use when you make commits:
$ git config --global user.name "My Name Here" $ git config --global user.email firstname.lastname@example.org
If you're a long-time GitHub user you can set these configuration variables on a per-repository basis:
$ git config user.name "My Name Here" $ git config user.email email@example.com
You can also add your
apache.org email address to your GitHub account so that the Apache mirrors on GitHub link to your Gravatar and user account.
To push to a repository you need to authenticate. More recent versions of Git prompt for a user name and password, and in some cases will cache the credentials in your operating system's default credential store.
On Mac OS X, you need to have
git-credential-osxkeychain installed, and to set the following configuration:
$ git config --global credential.helper osxkeychain
If you do not see an authentication prompt, you need to set up a
~/.netrc file that contains your user credentials:
$ (umask 0277; cat >> ~/.netrc <<EOF) machine gitbox.apache.org login username password mypassword EOF chmod 0600 ~/.netrc
You can list your user name in the Git repository URL, but this requires that you provide your password for every fetch and push. You can simplify this step by cloning a URL like:
$ git clone https://firstname.lastname@example.org/repos/asf/reponame.git
While it's possible to list your password in the URL, we discourage this practice as it leaves your password in plain text in the shell history.
You can use
git-gui as part of the
Instead of setting up a
~/.netrc file you need to:
- Set up a
%HOME%environment pointing to
- Create a
%HOME%_netrcwith this text all on one line:
machine gitbox.apache.org login username password mypassword
In general, you should normalize line endings in the Git repository and set them to be platform specific on checkout.
msysgitinstaller on Windows will prompt you to set the
- On Mac OS X or Linux, use this setting:
$ git config --global core.autocrlf input
Further details and attributes for handling line endings differently per file type are available at Configuring Git to handle line endings.
no DAV locking
If you get an error like this:
error: no DAV locking support on http://gitbox.apache.org/repos/asf/reponame.git/ fatal: git-http-push failed
It means that you're trying to push over HTTP, which is disabled. To fix this error change the remote repository URL to use HTTPS. You can edit the
.git/config file to update the URL variable, or use:
$ git config remote.origin.url https://gitbox.apache.org/repos/asf/reponame.git